An algorithm is a plan, a set of step-by-step instructions to solve a problem. There are three basic building blocks constructs to use when designing algorithms:. These building blocks help to describe solutions in a form ready for programming.
An explanation of sequencing, as used in algorithms and programming. Algorithms consist of instructions that are carried out performed one after another. For example, a very simple algorithm for brushing teeth might consist of these steps:.
Each step is an instruction to be performed. Sequencing is the order in which the steps are carried out. It is crucial that the steps in an algorithm are performed in the right order - otherwise the algorithm will not work correctly. Suppose the steps for the teeth-cleaning algorithm were in this sequence:.
A toothbrush would still be used to clean the teeth and toothpaste would still be put on the brush. A human would realise they had forgotten to add toothpaste at the start of the process, but a computer would not know that anything was wrong. A computer can only do what it is programmed to do. If the steps are programmed in the wrong sequence, the computer will perform the tasks in this sequence — even if this is incorrect. Sequencing in algorithms An algorithm is a plan, a set of step-by-step instructions to solve a problem.
There are three basic building blocks constructs to use when designing algorithms: sequencing selection iteration These building blocks help to describe solutions in a form ready for programming. What is sequencing? Sequencing is the specific order in which instructions are performed in an algorithm.World Book Wizard New. Live Homework Help New.
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Our Favorite Brands. Ultimate Supercars. Action Sports.I am just revising my computer skills after a 30 year break. The question on my mind is what are the fundamentals building blocks of computing? Then of course there is binary. Once again I am not sure if you are talking about programming but if so in the example I assigned 18 to the variable "x" and then used the If-Then statement to check the variable.
I wrote how the conditions are read in the Display output. Actually it could be. Any number of simple logic gates could be configured to make specific binary functions like this. It is more efficient though to use the gates to build programmable processing units that can more readily adapt to a variety of uses as opposed to a single hardwired application.
I think I have figured this one out. It is a logic gate but a rare one called a 'buffer'. This is a simple gate with one input and one output. If the input is 1 then the output is 1. If the input is 0 then the output is 0. This may seem a bit pointless for a logic gate and indeed it is a rare item.
Its the opposite of a NOT gate. Of course the first 1 may represent anything - say fish, the second 1 may also represent anything, say fishing. A Computer is a device that performs a succession of operations on data.
The operations form an addressable list called a "program" and the data also forms an addressable list the lists are technically known as "Turing Tapes". All computers are Turing Machines. In the early days of computers the devices truly were plain Turing Machines in which, when the machine was turned on the first instruction in the program list, or "program" would be read, this would act on the data, the next instruction would be read and so on.
This programming language was called "Machine Code". Assembler was very long winded, for instance to print data from disk to printer would involve a program such as:.Jump to navigation.
Campus health and safety are our top priorities. Get help with Instructional Continuity and working from home. When you're a freshman, you don't really have a good notion of what's important and what's not.
So, at the beginning of my first semester at UT, I tried to be a good student and gave my best effort to every new concept. At about week two, in the face of stress and activities much more fun than math, my intrinsic motivation broke down. The common adage for doing well in school is "focus on learning and the grade will come", but everyone knows learning is way harder than memorizing the tricks to solving the different types of problems that'll show up on the test.
One class that stands out in my mind from that semester is linear algebra. Around midterm season, we spent a good amount of time on matrix factorization and singular-value decomposition, two fairly dense topics. I skipped all those lectures, thinking to myself there'd never be a time I'd have to apply that complicated nonsense.
Unfortunately for me, singular-value decomposition made a strong appearance in two classes I've taken both machine learning and stats relatedand is apparently one of the most important concepts we were taught in linear algebra. Dreadfully unprepared, I screwed up all the related units. As you progress through college and take higher level classes, the whole memorizing-tricks-to-solve-problems thing stops working out, and you actually need a deep understanding of the concepts to succeed.
To make matters worse, math classes don't build on each other anymore. In my later classes, I'd be confronted with some insane proof involving derivatives of eigenvectors and I'd be sitting there on mathisfun. The worst is the data science class I'm in this semester.
Lesson 1.2: Building Blocks
For each already difficult homework problem, I'll realize I don't understand the associated concept we learned in class, then realize I don't understand the associated probability concept related to that higher level concept, and then realize I don't remember any calculus, and so can't even start learning the probability necessary to start learning the concept necessary to do the homework.
As a result, I'll be watching Calculus khan academy videos for hours before I can even start learning the prerequisites to the concepts I need to start. Eventually, I'll cram enough half-baked information in my brain to cobble together half a solution, look at the next problem, realize I don't actually understand anything since I've barely spent any time with the material, and restart the process.
While regretting my life decisions in the shower, I've come up with a few solutions for lazy underclassmen who don't want to end up like me.
If you Google "SVD Applications", "machine learning" is on the first page, which might motivate you to spend more time on the subject. If I deem something unnecessary, I almost always blow it off, so this technique has helped me a lot. Second, read articles about applications of things you learn.
Once you're sufficiently excited about a concept you're learning about, you can also follow or keep up with recent happenings in the associated field. Doing this for every class is way too much extra effort, but I tried applying the above two techniques to my statistics and network security classes, and it worked well. Being able to understand real world applications of what I learned in class was a confidence boost and I still remember the material I reviewed a year later.
The views, opinions and positions expressed by the authors and those providing comments on these blogs are theirs alone, and do not necessarily reflect the views, opinions or positions of UT Computer Science, The University of Texas or any employee thereof. This really helped me! I googled "humanities applications" and none of them were CS related so i tuned out the whole class and it was very beneficial.In computer programminga block or code block is a lexical structure of source code which is grouped together.
Blocks consist of one or more declarations and statements. A programming language that permits the creation of blocks, including blocks nested within other blocks, is called a block-structured programming language. Blocks are fundamental to structured programmingwhere control structures are formed from blocks.
The function of blocks in programming is to enable groups of statements to be treated as if they were one statement, and to narrow the lexical scope of objects such as variables, procedures and functions declared in a block so that they do not conflict with those having the same name used elsewhere. In a block-structured programming language, the objects named in outer blocks are visible inside inner blocks, unless they are masked by an object declared with the same name.
Ideas of block structure were developed in the s during the development of the first autocodesand were formalized in the Algol 58 and Algol 60 reports. Algol 58 introduced the notion of the "compound statement", which was related solely to control flow. Some languages which support blocks with declarations do not fully support all declarations; for instance many C-derived languages do not permit a function definition within a block nested functions.
And unlike its ancestor Algol, Pascal does not support the use of blocks with their own declarations inside the begin and end of an existing block, only compound statements enabling sequences of statements to be grouped together in ifwhilerepeat and other control statements.
The semantic meaning of a block is twofold. Firstly, it provides the programmer with a way for creating arbitrarily large and complex structures that can be treated as units. Secondly, it enables the programmer to limit the scope of variables and sometimes other objects that have been declared. In primitive languages such as early Fortran and BASICthere were a few built-in statement types, and little or no means of extending them in a structured manner.
For instance, until standard Fortran had no "block if" statement, so to write a standard-complying code to implement simple decisions the programmer had to resort to gotos :. Even in this very brief Fortran fragment, written to the Fortran 66 standard, it is not easy to see the structure of the program, because that structure is not reflected in the language. Without careful study it is not easy to see the circumstances in which a given statement is executed.
Blocks allow the programmer to treat a group of statements as a unit, and the default values which had to appear in initialization in this style of programming can, with a block structure, be placed closer to the decision:. Use of blocks in the above fragment of Pascal clarifies the programmer's intent, and enables combining the resulting blocks into a nested hierarchy of conditional statements.
The structure of the code reflects the programmer's thinking more closely, making it easier to understand and modify. The above source code can be made even clearer by taking the inner if statement out of the outer one altogether, placing the two blocks one after the other to be executed consecutively. Semantically there is little difference in this case, and the use of block structure, supported by indenting for readability, makes it easy for the programmer to refactor the code.
In primitive languages, variables had broad scope. For instance, an integer variable called IEMPNO might be used in one part of a Fortran subroutine to denote an employee social security number ssnbut during maintenance work on the same subroutine, a programmer might accidentally use the same variable, IEMPNO, for a different purpose, and this could result in a bug that was difficult to trace.
Block structure makes it easier for programmers to control scope to a minute level. In the above Scheme fragment, empno is used to identify both the manager and his or her underlings each by their respective ssn, but because the underling ssn is declared within an inner block it does not interact with the variable of the same name that contains the manager's ssn.
In practice, considerations of clarity would probably lead the programmer to choose distinct variable names, but he or she has the choice and it is more difficult to introduce a bug inadvertently. In a few circumstances, code in a block is evaluated as if the code were actually at the top of the block or outside the block. This is often colloquially known as hoistingand includes:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The variable empno in the outer expression, ;; referring to the manager's ssn, is shadowed. Computer programming portal. Communications of the ACM.World Book Wizard New. Live Homework Help New.
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